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Erlkönig: 日本語 youkoso Ch 0 Notes

Class notes from October 2002
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These are my own notes, not an official part of any japanese class.
If you're using them, it's your own fault :-).
If you find any mistakes in here, please tell me!

youkoso chapter 0 pp 1-79

[go to source text]

Note: Since I see no point to writing 'ee' in romaji for 'ei' in kana, or in any of the other common romaji othographic quirks, the text in the romaji page are generated by literal conversion of the underlying kana.

forms relating to asking for item names

  • item ha 日本語 de 何 to iimasu ka.
    (answer: item-in-japanese to iimasu. )
  • are ha 何 desu ka.

forms relating to likes, dislikes, and preferences

  • noun ga 好ki desu.
  • entity ha donna general-noun ga 好ki desu ka.
    (answer: specific-noun ga 好ki desu. )
  • noun to noun to dochira ga 好ki desu ka.
    (answer for both: dochira mo 好ki desu. )
    (to be indecisive: saa, wakarimasen ne. or uun, muzukashii desu ne. )

forms, buying things

  • noun ha arimasu ka.
  • noun ha ikura desu ka.
    (answer: number-en desu. )
  • kore de ii desu ka.
  • ke'kou desu.

forms, general queries

  • nani wo shimasu ka.
  • hokania (anthing else)
  • noun ha doko desu ka.
    (answer: noun ha place desu. )
  • chiyo'to tooi desu ne. (is it far?)
  • entity ha kinou 何時 ni okimashita ka.

conversation, mistaken identity (see also: skit)

kawamura: sumimasen. hayashisan desu ka.
tanaka: iie, chigaimasu.
kawamura: shitsurei shimashita.
tanaka: iie.

conversation, greeting a professor

baruanyokoi先生, ohayou gozaimasu.
yokai: aa, buraunsan, ohayou.
buraunii otenki desu ne.
yokai: ee. sou desu ne.

conversation, asking for a 電話 (phone) number

buraunyokoi先生 no denwa bangou ha.
kawamura: 0134—76—9328 desu.
buraun0134—57—9328 desu ne.
kawamura: iie, 0134—76—9328 desu.

conversation, pointing out an object

buraunare ha 何 desu ka.
kawamura:dore desu ka.
buraunhora, are desu.
kawamura:aa, are desu ka. jishiyo desu yo.

conversation, asking when someone wakes

hayashi: buraunsan ha 何ji ni okimasu ka.
buraungoji desu.
hayashi: waa, hayai desu ne.
buraunhayashisan ha.
hayashi: kuji desu.

conversation, asking about frequency

note行kimasu(ikimasu), 見masu(mimasu)
hayashi: gibusonsan ha yoku eiga ni 行kimasu ka. (or possibly:
gibusonsan ha yoku eigakan he 行kimasu ka. )
gibusonuun, amari 行kimasen ne. hayashisan ha.
hayashi: tokidoki 行kimasu. demo, terebi no eiga ha yoku 見masu.
gibusonwatashi ha terebi mo amari 見masen.

conversation, asking about future plans

kawamura: machidasan ha konshiyuu no shiyuumatsu, nani o shimasu ka.
machida: tomodachi to kaimono ni 行kimasu. kawamurasan ha.
kawamura: mochiron. 日本語 wo benkiyou shimasu.
machida: majime desu ne.

conversation, yesterday's munchies

miyai: kinou no youru nani wo tabemashita ka.
hayashi: eeto, kinou no yoru desu ka. 好kiyaki wo tabemashita.
miyai: hoka ni wa. (it's possible the last should be ha)
hayashi: eeto, hoka ni wa… yakitori wo tabemashita.

conversation, yesterday's momentary teetotaling

noteo酒(osake)
miyai: o酒 ha nomimasu ka.
hayashi: ee, chiyo'to.
miyai: kinou ha.
hayashi: zenzen nomimasen deshita.

conversation, making plans

note何曜日(nanyoubi), 金曜日(kinyoubi), 大(dai)
chinhayashisan, kiyou no gogo eega ni 行kimasen ka.
hayashi: kiyou no gogo desu ka. kiyou ha 何曜日 desu ka.
chineeta, 金曜日 desu.
hayashi: jiyaa, 大jiyoobu desu yo.

conversation, making dinner plans

note何曜日(nanyoubi), 金曜日(kinyoubi), 土曜日(doyoubi) , 大(dai)
hayashi: chinaan, 金曜日 i'shiyo ni yuugohan wo tabebasen ka.
chineeta, 金曜日 desu ka. 金曜日 ga chiyo'to…
hayashi: sore ha zannen desu ne. :-(
chindemo, 土曜日 ha 大jiyoobu desu yo. :-)

conversation, asking about preferred foods

note魚(sakana), 好ki(suki)
kawamura: machidasan ha 魚 ga 好ki desu ka.
machida: ee, toku ni osashimi ga 好ki desu.
kawamura: watashi ha osashimi ga kirai desu.
machida: hontou desu ka.
kawamura: machidasan ha donna nomimono ga 好ki desu ka.
machida: nomimono desu ka. sou desu ne. ko—hi— ga ichiban 好ki desu ne.
kawamura: sou desu ka.
machida: ee, toku ni aisu ko—hi— ga 好ki desu.

conversation, finding what floor

kawamura:sumimasen. kasa wa doko desu ka.
teninhai, kasa wa sankai desu.
kawamura:a, sou desu ka. arigatou gozaimasu.
tenin(bows)

conversation, finding someone's home

buraunkawamura san no uchi ha doku desu ka.
kawamura:setagawa desu.
buraunchiyouto tooi desu ne.
kawamura:ee.

conversation, asking which foods are available

kawamura: sumimasen. supage'chi ha arimasu ka.
ue—toresu: sumimasen ga chiyo'to…
kawamura: jiya, hanba—ga— ha arimasu ka.
ue—toresu: hai, arimasu.
kawamura: ikura desu ka.
ue—toresu: nihiyaku nijiyuu en desu.
kawamura: jiya, hanba—ga— to ko—ra wo onegai shimasu.
ue—toresu: arigatou gozaimasu. sanbiyaku nijiyuu en desu.

conversation, asking for a specific food

kawamura: ko—hi— ha arimasu ka.
ue—toresu: hai. aisu to ho'to ga arimasu.
kawamura: sou desu ne. aisu wo onegai shimasu.
ue—toresu: gohiyaku gojiyuu en desu.

greetings (see also: skit)

ohayo or ohayo gozaimasu.
konnichi ha.
konban ha.
oyasuminasai.
onamae ha. ...
hajimemashite.
douzo yoroshiku.
kochira koso yoroshiku.
ohisashiburi desu ne.
shibaraku desu ne.
kore, watashi no meeshi desu.
ee, sou desu ne.
ogenki desu ka.
ee, genki desu.
okagasama de genki desu.

weather greetings (p57)

ii otenki desu ne.
hidoi otenki desu ne.
hidoi ame desu ne. (雨 rain)
hidoi yuki desu ne. (雪 snow)
kiyou ha samui desu ne. (cold)
kiyou ha atsui desu ne. (hot)
kiyou ha atatakai desu ne. (warm)
kiyou ha suzushii desu ne. (cool)

[non]concurrence

hai.
iie.
iie, chigaimasu.
aa.
ee.
ee, sou desu ne.
chigaimasu.
ke'kou desu.
ee, so desu ne.
hontou desu ka.
jiyaa.
naruhodo.
yorokonde.

places

eigakan
toshiyokan
ga'kou
大学 (daigaku)
shigoto
uchi
ie
ginkou (bank)
apa—to
riyou

farewells

sayonara. / sayounara.
dewa, mata.
jiya, mata.
dewa.
jiya.
oyasuminasai.

assignations

mi—teingu
de—to
pa—tei
kaimono
shiyopingu

time and 何時

何時 (nan ji)
tokei
ima 何ji desu ka.
place ha ima 何ji desu ka.
何ji ni action ka.
ee'to, time 時 desu.
place ha ima daypart desu.
goro
han
asa
hiru
yuugata
yoru
gozen
gogo
start kara end made
event no jikan

media/electronics

eiga
terebi
rajio
konpiyuta—
dorama
niyuusu
shinbun
za'shi
ongaku
shi—dei
voriyuumu

music types

jiyazu
ro'ku
kurashi'ku
ra'pu
te'kuno
kantori— ando uesutan
minyou

music ga'ko

piano
gita—
huru—to
doramu
vaiorin
viora

politeness

sumimasen.
doumo arigatou gozaimasu.
douzo.
shitsurei shimashita.
dou itashimashite.
thing wo onegai shimasu.
sore ha zannen desu ne.
("regrettable" - see invite)

chiyo'to...
sumimasen ga, chiyo'to...
ee, demo chiyo'to...
a, sou desu ka.

stalling

eeto... (also ee'to...)
eeto desu ne...
anou... (get attn. / word stalled)
element desu ka...

doings

undou
sanpo
benkiyou
earobikusu
hima

countries

日本
itaria
huransu
mekishiko
supeingo

sports

suki—
hu'tobo—ru
sa'ka—
tenisu
supo—tsu
bokushingu
suiei
goruhu

items

kamera
se—ta—
so'kusa
kagu (furniture)
tokei
shiyatsu
te—buru
ji—nzu
kasa

tomorrow, week before last, frequency, &c

zenzen (+neg) amari (+neg) tokidoki yoru 毎日 (mainichi)
ototoi kinou kiyou 明日 (ashita) asa'te
sensenshiyuu senshiyuu konshiyuu raishiyuu saraishiyuu
example: konshiyuu no shiyuumatsu
example: kinou no yoru
query: naniyoubi ... ka.

the week's days

日本語germanic
rootkanjireadingroot
sun 日曜日 nichiyoubi sun day
moon 月曜日 getsuyoubi moon day
fire 火曜日 kayoubi tiu's day
water 水曜日 suiyoubi wodin's day
wood 木曜日 mokuyoubi thor's day
gold 金曜日 kinyoubi freya's day
soil 土曜日 doyoubi saturn's1 day

phrase: konshiyuu no getsuyoubi

note1: The kanji 土 does show up in Saturn's 日本語 name, 土星 (dosei), "clod-of-earth star", perhaps in emulation of the western dayname/planet connection, both of which were named after the Roman god.

verb conjugation (approx), with an example

("approx" because 行ki's one of several stems, as they're named here, of dictionary form 行ku, root 行)

verbnonpast past
positive stem-masu
行kimasu
stem-mashita
行kimashita
negative stem-masen
行kimasen
stem-masen deshita
行kimasen deshita
invitation [...] stem-masen ka.
eigakan ni 行kimasen ka.

verbs

target[p]verb, masu form
suugaku wo benkiyou shimasu
wakarimasu
arimasu
okimasu
nemasu
kaimono ni 行kimasu
tomodachi to hanashimasu
tomodachi ni aimasu
uchi he kaerimasu
uchi wo 出masu
tegami wo kakimasu
sushi wo tabemasu
ko—ra wo nomimasu
terebi wo 見masu
ongaku wo kikimasu
wo yomimasu
renshiyuu wo shimasu
undou wo shimasu
de—to wo shimasu
denwa wo shimasu
yakiyuu wo shimasu

qualities

好ki (suki)
- ga 好ki desu.
- ga 好ki jiya arimasen.
- ga kirai desu.
- ga kirai jiya arimasen.
tokuni ... ga
kawaii
hayai
majime
osoi (late, slow)
ichiban
chiyouto
daijiyoobu (OK w/ me)
chikai (near)
totemo chikai desu
tooi (far)
totemo tooi desu.
bejitarian

adverbial

ichinichijiyuu
i'shiyou ni

miscellany

mou
mochiron... (of course...)
honne (true intention)
木 (ki) (tree)
ai
ki—
a—to
su—tsu
suke—to
be'do
hoka no (ni) (additional)
hoka ni wa. (anything else?)
hua'shiyon
huirumu
konpiyu—ta

pronouns, &c.

watashi
watakushi
kore
sore
are
hore, are desu.

interrogatives

何, nan
何時 (nanji)
itsu
dare
doko
donna
dochira
dore
nanyoubi

particles

ha - topic
ga - ?
no - possess
wo - d.object
he - towards
ni - at
yo - emphatic
san - honorific

orthography

kanji
hiragana
katakana
゛- dakuten
゜- handakuten
( ) - ka'ko
. - mara
, - ten
「」- kagika'ko
- nakaten
… - santen riidaa

numbers

電話 denwa
0 rei
zero
zero
sen hiyaku jiyuu ichi ichi
nisen nihiyaku nijiyuu ni nii
sanzen sanbiyaku sanjiyuu san san
yonsen yonhiyaku yonjiyuu yon
shi
yon
gosen gohiyaku gojiyuu go gou
rokusen ro'piyaku rokujiyuu roku roku
nanasen nanahiyaku shichijiyuu
nanajiyuu
shichi
nana
nana
ha'sen ha'piyaku hachijiyuu hachi hachi
kiyuusen kiyuuhiyaku kiyuujiyuu kiyuu kiyuu
ichiman sen hiyaku jiyuu jiyuu

counters


(basement: chika -)

p.129
hitotsu i'kai i'pun ichiji
hutatsu nikai nihun niji
mi'tsu sankai
sangai
sanpun sanji
yo'tsu yonkai yonpun
yonhun
yoji
itsutsu gokai gohun goji
mu'tsu ro'kai ro'pun rokuji
nanatsu nanakai nanahun
shichihun
shichiji
nanaji
ya'tsu ha'kai ha'pun hachiji
kokonotsu kiyuukai kiyuuhun kuji
too jiyu'kai jiyu'pun jiyuuji

classroom (kiyoushitsu)

suugaku

classroom (kiyoushitsu) objects

isu
tenjiyou
kabe
yuka
doa
denki
mado
ka—ten
kokuban
kokuban keshi
chiyo—ku
大学 (daigaku)
shiya—pu penshiru
kiyoukashiyo
先生 (sensei)
学生 (gakusai)
本 (hon)
jishiyo
tsukue
kami
kaban
no—to
enpitsu
bo—ru pen
mannenhitsu
te—buru
keshigomu

classroom (kiyoushitsu) phrases - 学生

shitsumon ga arimasu.
mou ichido onegai shimasu.
wakarimasu / wakarimasen / wakarimasu ka.
chiyo'to ma'te kudasai.

classroom (kiyoushitsu) phrases - 先生

本 wo tojite kudasai.
本 wo akete kudasai.
本 wo mite kudasai.
本 ha minai de kudasai.
kiite kudasai.
mite kudasai.
i'te kudasai. (i'te = 言'te)
mou ichido i'te kudasai.
yonde kudasai.
日本語 de i'te kudasai.
kurikaeshite kudasai.
kaite kudasai.
renshiyuu shite kudasai.
no—to wo dashite kudasai.
no—to ni kaite kudasai.
何 mo kakanai de kudasai. (nani mo ...)
pea wo tsuku'te kudasai.
hijimemashiyou.
shitsumon ga arimasu ka.
mou ichido.
minasan, i'shiyo ni.
ii desu ka.
ii desu ne.
yoku dekimashita.
dewa mata kono tsuki.

sustenance

hashi
kahuiteria
country riyouri

meals

gohan (rice/meal)
asagohan
hirugahan
bangohan
yuugohan

foods / tabemono

魚 (sakana)
sushi
niku
hanba—ga—
piza
kudamono
yasui
buro'kori
anago
unagi
omeraisu
soba
tenpura
osashimi
aisu kuri—mu
pasuta
sukiyaki
yakitori
remon
banira
peparoni
orenji
chiyokore—to
gure—pu
dore'shiingu

drinks / nomimono

mizu (H2O)
osake
ko—hi—
ko—ra
ochiya
kochiya
jiyu—su
giyuunuu (miruki)
biiru
酒 (osake)
marugarita
wain
aisu tei
uisuki—
kakuteru
moka
kona
ho'to
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