[moon] home

Erlkönig: 日本語 youkoso Ch 1 Notes

Class notes from October 2002
[parent webpage]

[webserver base]

[search erlkonig webpages]

[import certificates]


These are my own notes, not an official part of any japanese class.
If you're using them, it's your own fault :-).
If you find any mistakes in here, please tell me!

youkoso chapter 1 pp 82-126

currently working on page 105

[go to source text]

helpful phrases

  • mou 一度ichido o 願negai shimasu.
  • yu'kuri o 願negai shimasu.

forms: yes/no queries

  • noun1 ha noun2 desu ka.
  • noun1 ha noun2 deha arimasen ka.
  • 本当hontou desu ka.
  • chigai desu ka.

forms: yes/no answers

  • hai, noun2 deha.
  • hai, sou desu.
  • iie, noun2 deha arimasen.
  • iie, noun2 jiya arimasen.
  • iie, 違chigaimasu.
  • sumimasen, wakarimasen.

forms: either/or queries

  • … ha noun1 desu ka, noun2 desu ka.

forms: ha/mo substitution to highlight similarity

In reply to statements in the form:

noun1 ha noun2 desu.

One may highlight matching circumstance by replacing ha with mo as

[ 本当 desu ka. ]
noun1 mo noun2 desu.

forms: polite o and go prefixes in personal questions

  • o 名前namae ha 何 desu ka.
  • go 出身shiyu'shin ha dochira desu ka.
  • o 国kuni ha dochira desu ka.
  • o sumai ha dochira desu ka. (sumai = residence)
  • o 電話denwa 番号bango ha 何番nanban desu ka.

age/birthday related (ikutsu = how old):

  • o 年toshi ha oikutsu desu ka.
  • entitysan ha o ikutsu desu ka.
  • entitysan ha 何歳nansai desu ka.
  • reply, 1+ years: yearcountsai desu.
  • reply, <1 years: monthcount ke月gatsu desu.
  • entitysan ha 何月nangatsu umare desu ka. (umareru = to be born)

forms: no for equivalence when topic is demonstrative pronoun

  • kore ha watashi no 友tomodachi no 町田machida san desu.

conversation: asking about someone in a picture

山口san to kawamurasan ga 写真shiyashin wo 見te imasu.
山口: kono人 ha dare desu ka.
kawamura: sono人 ha buraunsan desu.
山口: 大学 no kurasume—to desu ka.
kawamura: hai, sou desu.

conversation: nationality of a person in a picture

chinsan ha 中国人 desu.
kawamura: kono人 ha chin meirin san desu.
chinchinsan ha 中国人 desu ka.
kawamura: hai, sou desu. 中国語 wo 話shimasu.

conversation: sukiyaki and mistaken identity

kawamura: sumimasen. are ha 何 desu ka.
ue—ta—: are ha 「sukiyaki」 desu.
kawamura: jiya, are ha o願ishimasu.
buraunano人 ha 林san deha arimasen ka. (note: 林 = hayashi)
kawamura: dono人 desu ka.
buraunhora, ano人 desu.
kawamura: iie, 林san jiya arimasen yo.

conversation: asking origin, school year, and major
(daiarogu:出身shiyu'shin to 何年生nannensei to 専攻senkou

山口: buraunsan no go出身 ha doku desu ka. (the ____no part is omittable)
buraunbosuton no 出身 desu.
山口: 何年生 desu ka.
buraun三年生 desu.
山口: 専攻 ha 何 desu ka.
buraun歴史rekishi学 desu.



  • Do not use anata to address superiors; use their names.
  • Parenthesized forms are used less than the next more polite form.
  • For anata, -gata is more formal than -tachi.
  • Various texts annote that kare and kanojiyo are not full pronouns.
  • boku is associated with young males. Many men use ore in informal converse.
  • atashi is said to be somewhat girly.
  • kanojiyo is a recent invention (< 100 years). Before, kare was used for both.
  • ano人 is a generic, and more such as anoko that child are seen.
  • Reportedly karetachi is never used, although kanojiyotachi is.
singular plural (+tachi)
casualnormalpolite casualnormalpolite
male boku watakushi bokutachi
either watashi watashitachi
female atashi atashitachi
male kimi otaku anatatachi
either anata
male (彼kare ano方kata karera or
either ano人hito ano人hitotachi
female (彼女kanojiyo 彼女kanojiyora or

demonstrative pronouns and adjectives

typethingplacedirection notes adjective form
ko kore koko kochira near speaker kono
so sore soko sochira near listener sono
a are asoko achira near neither ano
do dore doko dochira interrogative dono
1 of 3+
(which is...)
1 of 2
(which is...)
N of 3+
(which are...)

examples of demonstrative pronouns for persons

kochira ha 東京大学 no 横井yokoi 先生 desu.
町田san ha kochira desu ka.

examples of demonstrative adjectives

kono 本 ha 町田san no 本 desu.
ano 映画eiga ha 日本 no 映画 desu ka.

examples of demonstrative interrogatives

(note the adjective form taking a repetition of the noun)

町田san no 本 ha dono 本 desu ka. (which are...)
kawamurasan no kaban ha dore desu ka. (which is...)
林san no 本 ha dochira desu ka. (which of these 2 is...)

counters: age and months

(also 人)
i'sai 一歳hitotsu一tsu ichigatsu一月january
nisai 二歳hutatsu二tsu nigatsu二月february
sansai 三歳mi'tsu三tsu sangatsu三月march
yonsai 四歳yo'tsu四tsu shigatsu四月april
gosai 五歳itsutsu五tsu gogatsu五月may
rokusai 六歳mu'tsu六tsu rokugatsu六月june
nanasai 七歳nanatsu七tsu shichigatsu七月july
ha'sai 八歳ya'tsu八tsu hachigatsu八月august
kiyuusai 九歳kokonotsu九tsu kugatsu九月september
jiyu'sai 十歳tou jiyuugatsu十月october
十一jiyuui'sai 十一歳 jiyuuichigatsu十一月november
十二jiyuuni 十二歳 jiyuunigatsu十二月december
二十nijiyu'sai 二十歳hatachi二十
hiyakusai 百歳

student IDs

simulated data

[大学] 學生証
氏名 kurisutohua
年齢 36
生年月日 1966.02.18
国籍 amerika
出身地 osuchin
住所 13206 amariro
学部 外国語
専攻 日本語

Student ID Field List

kanji reading meaning notes
學生証 gakuseishiyou student-id 學生 student + 証715proof
身分 mibun status 323body + 分199understand
証明書 shiyoumeishiyo certificate 715proof + 明208clear + 書142write
学籍番号 gakusekibangou student-number 10learning + 籍1486register
+ (番196 + 号281)number
氏名 shimei full name 495family/full + 名71name
年齢 nenrei age 64year + 齢1925age
(perhaps < years of tooth-counted age)
生年月日 birth y/m/d
国籍 kokuseki nationality 128country + 籍1486register
出身地 shiyu'shinchi birthplace 32emerge + 身323body + 地167land
住所 jiyuushiyo address 310reside + 所312place
学部 gakubu academic dept. 10learning + 部384section
専攻 senkou specialization 914exclusive + 攻1247attack


(there are 76 kanji in grade 1 of the kiyouiku kanji)
index grade kanji on reading kun reading meaning uses and other notes
11 ichi, itsu hito 1, one kono人 ha….
611 ni huta 2, two 二十 (20), 二人 「hutari」
231 sen mi 3, three
261 shi yon, yo- 4, four once represented by 4 horizontal strokes, then replaced by the like-sounding kanji for a breath (八66 out(of) + 口20), possibly due to 四 resembling a fist.
191 go itsu 5, five once represented by 5 horizontal strokes, then replaced by the kanji for a thread-reel for phonetic and yarn-winding-related reasons
761 roku mu- 6, six a variation of a roof kanji, phonetic substitute for an old kanji meaning clenched fist, and old way of showing 6.
301 shichi nana 7, seven once a horizontally-stretched 十, representing a line cutting another (one of several ancient 7s), favored perhaps due to resembling a bent finger under a fist, an old way of signing 7.
661 hachi ya- 8, eight
in compounds: divide, disperse, away, out
八tsu当riyatsuatari outburst of anger
once written as )( split/divide and possibly similar to an ancient handsign for 8 of a fist with pinky and thumb extended.
121 kiyuu, ku kokono 9, nine left side is a hand, right a bent elbow, an ancient manual representation for 9.
331 jiyuu tou 10, ten phonetic substitute once meaning needle for more complex kanji 拾 (rad. 手32 hand + 合121 join)
671 hiyaku 100, hundred 1 + 白, here meaning thumbnail, an old symbol for 100. replace top stroke with other digits for ancient forms of 200, 500, etc.
11 sen chi 1000, thousand rad. 人 + cross-stroke for 1. Based on partially phonetic symbolism of body for 1000. Add more cross-strokes for ancient form of 2000, 3000, etc.


61 on, in oto, ne sound 子音shiinconsonant
old form of 言274 with an added tongue, suggesting shout or sing.
101 gaku mana(bu) learning, (school) canonical form: 學10
161 getsu, gatsu tsuki moon, month
181 ken mi- look, see, show terebi wo 見masu.
201 kou, ku guchi mouth
241 san yama mountain
251 shi, su ko child pictograph: swaddling infant waving arms
341 shiyutsu de-, da- emerge, put out uchi wo 出masu. 出口 (exit)
391 jin hito person
421 sei, shiyou nama life, birth, grow
491 sen saki precede, priority, tip,
future, destination
531 tai, dai o(kii) big
571 chiyou machi town, block
591 den ta rice field
621 nichi, jitsu hi, -ka sun, day 本日honjitsu(today)
641 nen toshi year 五年生gonensei(5th grader)
681 bun, mon humi writing, text 文字monjicharacter
from an ancient glyph for intricately patterned overlaid collar, then intricate pattern, then writing
701 hon moto root, true, book, this,
cylinder counter
711 mei, miyou na name, fame 20+夕44(= call)
o 名mae ha…
802 ka nani, nan what?, how many?
87 kai, e a(u) meet resembles two 二 + noses 厶 + under a roof.
a rice pot and its lid which yield the intransitive come together / meet. Note that 云78speak is actually an erroneous substitution based on transitive put together and confusion of the real pot element with the mouth-with-tongue kanji.
912 gai, ge soto, hoka, haza(su) outside, other, undo 44crescent moon suggesting shape of turtle shell + NGU character for divination, both phonetically suggesting cracks in the outside of the shell.
1012 kiyou oshi(eru) teach 孝 [handless 學10] (emulation w/sticks + 子25 child) + 攵hand-with-stick
1122 go kata(ru) tell, speak, talk
obsolete: match someone verbally, speak well

looks like: 言274 + 五 19 + 口 20
suggesting 5 mouths to speak a language.
actually the 五/口 was 2 identical thread reels (see 五19) expressing well-matched (later resist and I/me from a person like any other).
1132 kou, ku work 人工jinkoumanmade
pictograph: carpenter's adze/square
1192 kou taka, taka(i) tall, high, sum pictograph: tall watchtower
1232 koku kuni state, country, region o国kuni ha dochira desu ka.
137 shiya yashiro shrine 社会shiyakaisociety
(as in togetherness at a shrine?)
695sacrifice on bloody alter + 土60ground = alter ground or shrine
1512 suu, su kazu, kazo(eru) number, count 35 and 米 201 rice, the latter a substitute for an obscure character for linking, comprise the left half shamaness. + 攵 hand-with-stick. The top-left and the shamaness symbol each suggest or connote chanting, yielding the rather mystical chanting while holding counting sticks.
1592 zen mae before, front 「止129(footobs.) +舟1354(boat)」=(clog), +刀 (trim, now ignored) = (advance by trimming)
2142 yuu tomo friend 友人yuujin (friend), 友達tomodachi (friend)
(< 2 right-hands)
2202 ri reason, rationale 心理学shinigakupsychology
from 玉102jewel + 里219village with dividing paths yielding 中国語 split a jewel along preexisting flaws/paths within, then act carefully/ handle/ manage, then concentration, then using the mind, then reasoning
2212 wa hanashi, hana(su) speech, talk 274word + /mouth/resound + goodphon. (see 氏495)
2273 iku raise, educate inverted 子25 child + amnion beneath as in older 流409, ancient form surmounted by sitting variant of 女35 woman for the birthing mother.
2293 in an institute 病院biyouinhospital
rad. hill + top-right roof + 元 origin (sounding like fence/wall)
2383 ka, ke ba(keu) change, bewitch 変化henkachange
39(standing) person + fallen person (implying a change of state) + (by one theory) deceivephon.
2743 gen, gon koto, i(u) word, say, speak 20 + 辛1432 sharp/piercing + (possibly) feelingsphon. = (by one theory) articulate speech
2893 shi yubi, sa(su) finger, point radical 扌/手32hand + 旨1312good (and perhaps useful) + branchphon.
2963 shiya utsu(su/ru) copy, transcribe 写真shiyashin(photo)
3233 shin mi body was (pregnant woman)
3763 bi utsuku(shii) beautiful, fine 美人bijina beauty/belle
53big + 羊986sheep
3843 bu, be part, section, clan, dept. 学部gakubudepartment
(< obscure (spit/foo-mouth/division) + village)
3873 butsu, motsu mono thing left side 牛97cow + right side NGU (now 中国語 only) variety of streamers yielding variegated cow, then creature, then thing.
4464 gan nega(u) request, wish o願negaishima.
107 from+big + 頁中国語head
4954 shi uji clan, family, Mr. originally a ladle pictograph, became entangled with the glyph for hill 阜 (which yielded 阝) and associated with hilltop-dwelling nobles.
4964 shi history, chronicler a hand, holding a combination mouth/counting-stick, yielding a person counting out loud or a tallyer.
5144 shin ma true, quintessence 真実shinjitsu(truth)
真'白ma'shiro(pure white)
544 chi, ji osa(meru), nao(su) govern, rule, cure rad. 水40water + the ambiguous 台166platform/ self. Conjecture: Some believe this may borrow its meaning in connection with the name of some ancient 中国 river, Some theorize it may refer to self-water i.e. irrigation, metaphorically suggesting self-control and thereby self-government, later broadened.
5844 hou, hatsu law rad. 水40water + 去258double-lidded rice container (archaic) to metaphorically suggest containment of human behavior or legal constraint
6024 rui resemble, variety(of), sort, semblance,
中国語: mythical raccoon-semblant creature
種類shiyuruisort, kind
201 in 米頁(similar rice heads) + 犬17dog (see 中国語, left). Replaced simpler dog-free kanji for resemble.
6064 reki history, path 129footprint/trail + 米米201rice plants + an ambiguous cliff radical = regularly spaced row of rice plants, later regular row or path, then metaphorically history or career path.
6585 kei, kiyou he(ru), ta(tsu) pass, sutra, longitude 経済keizaieconomy
< 糸27 thread + 巠(old 269) loom's guiding warp threads
7085 jiyutsu sube means, technique 118go/roads + 朮(old 707)adhere (< hand w/ sticky rice bits) or + 述707followobs. + twistingphon. = twisting path adhered to
724 sei, shiyou matsurigoto government 41correct + 攵hand-with-stick = correct forcibly, hence govern(ment).
8716 sai, sei su(mu/masu) settle, finish, concluded, put in order 返済hensairepayment
rad. 水40 water + 斉1473 equal (derived from offering of similar rice to the gods) + clear/purephon. = settled waterobs.
9146 sen mo'pa(ra) exclusive, sole 専門senmon (specialty)
専攻senkou (acad. major)
専制sensei (despotism) :-)
1006gen i chiga(u) differ iie, 違imasu.
1247gen kou se(meru) attack 専攻senkou (specialty)
1628gen tetsu wisdom 20mouth + 折522break + correctphon. + possibly divide/analyze hence correct-speech. I found further setsu puns with: + incisive (pun on 切) + integrity (pun on 節) + preach/explain (pun on 読) Could also mean words that level forests for all we know :-) (from origin of 折522 as 林75forest + 斤1176axe/axe-weight)
1910gen riyou hostel, dormitory radical 宀 building/house + lower part meaning sacrifice fuel + windowphon., originally referred to a house window (possibly smoke vent), later to a small building, now larger ones as noted.

vocabulary (mostly kanji compounds)

items with '*' are unverified
kanji reading meaning uses/notes
山口 yamaguchi mountain pass [a name]
写真 shiyashin picture(n.)
町田 machida rice field village [a name]
高田 takada watchtower rice field [a name]
名前 namae name
出身 shiyu'shin origin, hometown
yuu'kuri slower yuu'kuri o願ishimasu.
ohuisu office
erebe—ta— elevator
conjunct-verb-nagara while verbing... 写真shiyashin wo 指sashingara…
while pointing at the picture...


大学 daigaku university 第学生daigakusei
専攻 senkou college major, specialization see 専916sole, 攻1247attack
学部 gakubu acedemic dept. see 部384
事務室 jimushitsu administration office 293matters + 務795duty + 室136shitsuroom
実験室 ji'kenshitsu laboratory (room) 296truth/reality + 験475examine + 室136shitsuroom
biru building
学年 gakunen school year
一年生 ichinensei freshman
二年生 ninensei sophomore
三年生 sannensei junior
四年生 yonnensei senior
大学院生 daigakuinsei grad student see 院284

academic subjects

人類学 jinruigaku anthropology man-kind-ology
see 類602
美術 bijiyutsu art beauteous technique
see 美376, 術708
生物学 seibutsugaku biology growing thing-ology
see 物387
化学 kagaku chemistry change-ology
see 化238
konpiyu—ta saiensu C.S.
経済学 keizaigaku economics see 経658,済871sai
教育学 kiyouikugaku education teaching/raising-ology
see 教101, 育227
工学 kougaku engineering work-ology
see 工113
外国語 gaikokugo foreign languages outside-country language
see 外44, 国123
歴史学 rekishigaku history (event-)path record-ology
see 歴606, 史496
法学 hougaku law law-ology
see 法584
言語学 gengogaku linguistics word-language-ology
文学 bungaku literature writings-ology
see 文68
数学 suugaku mathematics number-ology
see 数151
音楽 ongaku music sound-ology
see 音6
哲学 tetsugaku philosophy wisdom-ology
see 哲1628
物理学 butsurigaku physics thing-reason-ology
see 物387, 理220
政治学 seijigaku political science govermental-rule-ology
see 政724, 治544
社会学 shiyakaigaku sociology society-ology
see 社137, 会87


note: 米, for US, might not be general use...
英語 name o国kuni
ha dochira…
何人… 何語… notes
Nippon 日本 日本人 日本語
America amerika
米, bei, is also (raw) rice
米軍, beigun, is US Army
Brazil barajiru barajiru人 porutogaru語
Canada kanada kanada人 英語
China chiyugoku
中国人 中国語 中国 is Middle Kingdom
Deutschland doitsu doitsu人 doitsu語 The 日本語 name is based
on Germany' native name
England igirisu igirisu人 英語
France huransu huransu人 huransu語
Hong Kong honkon
香港人 中国語
Italia itaria itaria人 itaria語 The 日本語 name is based
on Italy's native name
Mexico mekishiko mekishiko人 supein
Russia roshia roshia人 roshia語
Singapore shingapo—ru shingapo—ru人 英語, 中国語
South Korea kangoku
韓国人 韓国語
Spain supain supain supain
Taiwan taiwan
台湾人 中国語
encrypt lang [de jp fr] diff backlinks (sec) validate printable
Earth: too weird to destroy.
[ Your browser's CSS support is broken. Upgrade! ]
alexsiodhe, alex north-keys