NOTE: All commands must be in lowercase unless specified otherwise.
Click on the command for a more detailed explaination.
||change directory to dir, your home directory by default
|cp old new
||copy a file named old to a new file namednew
||gives hard drive space info on all filesystems local and remote
||gives hard drive space info on all local filesystems
|df -k dir
||gives hard drive space info for filesystem containing directory dir|
- use a dir of a dot "." for the current directory
||add group access to directories in dirlist
creating them if necessary
list files/dirs in list (default ".")
using "ls -FCasH" (short form)|
list files/dirs in list (default ".")
using "ls -FlasH" (long form)
||make new directories given in dirlist
|mv old new
||move (rename) a file named old to the name new
|mv files dir
||move multiple files into the directory dir
||allows limited use of root-access commands for users
on certain hosts,
where request is from
reboot, shutdown, halt, gamma, tidydisk, tablet
when run without arguments,
a full list of available comands is given
|ps -f -u user
||list all processes owned by user (i.e. your loginname) in full form
||remote login to machine host
|rsh host cmd
||run a command cmd remotely on machine host
||remove (unlink, delete) files - files deleted are GONE FOREVER
||remove directories listing in dirlist
||keeps a running list of the top cpu consuming processes
The cd command is used the change directory,
that is, it sets the current working directory of the current
shell to be the directory specified after the cd.
If no directory is specified, then the user's shell sets itself
back to that user's home directory.
If directory specifies a complete path starting with /, ., ..,
directory becomes the new working directory. If neither case applies,
cd tries to find the designated directory relative to one of the paths
specified by the $CDPATH shell variable. $CDPATH has the same syntax
as, and similar semantics to, the $PATH shell variable. cd must have
execute (search) permission in directory.
cp old new
The cp command is used to copy a file to a new location,
or to copy many files into a target directory.
Directory hierarchies can also be copied using the option -r.
To copy a file named image.jpg
to the directory /vol/abyss/tmp
with the new name of bleeding-heart.jpg
the following command could be used:
cp image.jpg /vol/abyss/tmp/bleeding-heart.jpg
To copy files named foo, bar, and qux
to /vol/abyss/tmp, this command could be used:
cp foo bar qux /vol/abyss/tmp
The new files in /vol/abyss/tmp will have the same respective
names as the originals.
df -lk diropt
The df displays the amount of disk free
on the filesystem containing each argument pathname. If no
pathnames are given, the space available on all currently
mounted filesystems is shown.
The -k, --kilobytes switch prints sizes in 1K blocks
instead of 512-byte blocks.
Creates new directories with group-write and sticky, suitable
for sharing within a group. Use "ls -l" to see group name.
May be run on existing directories as well to similar effect.
grosview is a good way to get an idea what resources are being used on
you machine in graphical format
grosview is a program that calls gr_osview with a bunch of parameters
set so you don't have to worry about them. here is a description of
gr_osview itself: This command provides a graphical display of usage of
certain types of system resources. This display provides a real-time
window into the overall operation of the system. The main display
element is a rectangular area which is filled by uniquely colored
bands, each band signifying a sampled variable measuring system
performance. This rectangular area is called a bar throughout the rest
of this description.
hinv displays the contents of the system hardware inventory table. This
table is created each time the system is booted and contains entries
describing various pieces of hardware in the system. The items in the
table include main memory size, cache sizes, floating point unit, and
disk drives. Without arguments, the hinv command will display a one line
description of each entry in the table.
The ls command is used to list files in a directory,
defaulting to the current directory.
It is similar to the DOS command dir.
There are many options available with ls,
but the most commom have been prepacked at this site as
l (that's just the letter "L" in lower case)
for a short listing, and
ll (that's two lowercase "L"s)
for a long listing with
user and group ownerships, and
last time of modification.
A specific list of files and/or directories may be given after the
ls command or after one of its prepacked forms.
A single dot can be used to refer to the current directory.
The mkdir command is used to make directories.
The specified directories are created, and are initially empty,
meaning they only have entries
. (dot) and .. (dotdot), which are
names for the current and parent directories, respectively.
mv old new
mv files dir
The mv command is used to move file and/or directories
to new locations.
This includes simply moving a file to a new name within the current
This is very similar to the cp command except for several
- The files will only be available via the new names/locations.
- mv is usually much faster than cp.
- They're spelled differently. :-)
osview monitors various portions of the activity of the operating system
and displays them using the full screen capabilities of the current
where request is one of the following single words,
from the implemented functions marked with '*':
* help - output help about this program
* allowed - tell you if you may issue requests
* reboot - reboot this host
* shutdown - shutdown this host
* halt - shutdown this host
* gamma - modify the gamma level
* automount - restart the automounter
renice - make a process defer to others
kill - kill a process
suspend - suspend a process temporarily
* tidydisk - free up likely disk space
* tablet - configure a tablet for Alias
Example: please help
The executing user must have permission for the requested action.
Most actions are automatically logged in the system logs.
ps -f -u user
ps prints certain information about active processes. Without options,
information is printed about processes associated with the controlling
here are a few helpfull command lines to use for ps:
ps -u user gives a short listing of user processes
ps -f -u user gives a long listing of user processes
ps -ef | grep processname gives a listing of every instance of processname
The rlogin is used to login to remote machines within a
given domain or within a given site.
to which to connect is specified after the rlogin
The rm command is used to remove files.
Simply give the filenames to remove after the rm.
Files thus removed are GONE FOREVER.
The packaged version of rm here is nicer, and asks
you, once, if you're sure you want to remove the files.
However, if you say yes, they're still GONE FOREVER...
The rmdir command is used to remove directories.
The directories to remove must be empty at the time.
rlogin hostname cmd
Rsh connects to the specified hostname, and executes the specified cmd.
Rsh copies its standard input to the remote command, the standard output
of the remote command to its standard output, and the standard error of
the remote command to its standard error.
This command displays a sorted list of processes which are using some
portion of the available CPU cycles on a machine. The display is updated
The following fields are displayed in order for each process: user name,
process ID, process group ID, CPU usage, processor currently executing
the process ( if process not currently running), process priority,
process size (in pages), resident set size (in pages), amount of CPU time
used by the process, and the process name.